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Definitions

“Accuracy” ​usually measured in terms of inaccuracy, means the maximum deviation, positive or negative, of an indicated value from an accepted standard or true valu​​​

“Active flight control systems” are systems that function to prevent undesirable “aircraft” and missile motions or structural loads by autonomously processing outputs from multiple sensors and then providing necessary preventive commands to effect automatic control.

“Active pixel” is a minimum (single) element of the solid state array which has a photoelectric transfer function when exposed to light (electromagnetic) radiation.

“Adapted for use in war” means any modification or selection (such as altering purity, shelf life, virulence, dissemination characteristics, or resistance to UV radiation) designed to increase the effectiveness in producing casualties in humans or animals, degrading equipment or damaging crops or the environment.

“Additives” means substances used in explosive formulations to improve their properties.​

ADF means Australian Defence Force​

“Adjusted Peak Performance” is an adjusted peak rate at which “digital computers” perform 64‑bit or larger floating point additions and multiplications, and is expressed in Weighted TeraFLOPS (WT) with units of 1012 adjusted floating point operations per second.

N.B.:        See Category 4, Technical Note.​

An Agent is a person who acts for another person to arrange a supply of goods or technology.​

“Aircraft” means a fixed wing, swivel wing, rotary wing (helicopter), tilt rotor or tilt‑wing airborne vehicle.

N.B.:        See also “civil aircraft”.​

"Airship" means a power-driven airborne vehicle that is kept buoyant by a body of gas (usually helium, formerly hydrogen) which is lighter than air.​

“All compensations available” means after all feasible measures available to the manufacturer to minimise all systematic positioning errors for the particular machine‑tool model are considered.

“Allocated by the ITU” means the allocation of frequency bands according to the current edition of the ITU Radio Regulations for primary, permitted and secondary services.

N.B.:        Additional and alternative allocations are not included.​

“Angle random walk” means the angular error build up with time that is due to white noise in angular rate. (IEEE STD 528‑2001)​

“Angular position deviation” means the maximum difference between angular position and the actual, very accurately measured angular position after the workpiece mount of the table has been turned out of its initial position.

“APP” is equivalent to “Adjusted Peak Performance”.

Approved Community members are Australian or US entities who have been approved under The Treaty between the Government of Australia and the Government of the United States of America concerning Defense Trade Cooperation to export or transfer Treaty Articles without requiring separate export licences or permits.​

APS means Australian Public Service​

ASIO means Australian Security Intelligence Organisation​

ASIS means Australian Secret Intelligence Service​

“Asymmetric algorithm “ means a cryptographic algorithm using different, mathematically related keys for encryption and decryption.

N.B.:        A common use of “asymmetric algorithms” is key management.​

"Automated Command and Control Systems" means electronic systems, through which information essential to the effective operation of the grouping, major formation, tactical formation, unit, ship, subunit or weapons under command is entered, processed and transmitted. This is achieved by the use of computer and other specialised hardware designed to support the functions of a military command and control organisation. The main functions of an automated command and control system are: the efficient automated collection, accumulation, storage and processing of information; the display of the situation and the circumstances affecting the preparation and conduct of combat operations; operational and tactical calculations for the allocation of resources among force groupings or elements of the operational order of battle or battle deployment according to the mission or stage of the operation; the preparation of data for appreciation of the situation and decision-making at any point during operation or battle; computer simulation of operations.​

“Automatic target tracking” means a processing technique that automatically determines and provides as output an extrapolated value of the most probable position of the target in real time.​

“Average output power” means the total “laser” output energy in joules divided by the “laser duration” in seconds.​

“Basic gate propagation delay time” means the propagation delay time value corresponding to the basic gate used in a “monolithic integrated circuit”.  For a ‘family’ of “monolithic integrated circuits”, this may be specified either as the propagation delay time per typical gate within the given ‘family’ or as the typical propagation delay time per gate within the given ‘family’.

N.B. 1:     “Basic gate propagation delay time” is not to be confused with the input/output delay time of a complex “monolithic integrated circuit”.

N.B. 2:     ‘Family’ consists of all integrated circuits to which all of the following are applied as their manufacturing methodology and specifications except their respective functions:

a.        The common hardware and software architecture;

b.        The common design and process technology; and

c.        The common basic characteristics.​

“Basic scientific research” means experimental or theoretical work undertaken principally to acquire new knowledge of the fundamental principles of phenomena or observable facts, not primarily directed towards a specific practical aim or objective.

“Bias” (accelerometer) means the average over a specified time of accelerometer output measured at specified operating conditions that has no correlation with input acceleration or rotation. “Bias” is expressed in g or in metres per second squared (g or m/s2). (IEEE STD 528‑2001) (Micro g equals 1x10‑6 g).


“Bias” (gyro) means the average over a specified time of gyro output measured at specified operating conditions that has no correlation with input rotation or acceleration.  “Bias” is typically expressed in degrees per hour (deg/hr). (IEEE STD 528‑2001).

“Biocatalysts“ means 'enzymes' for specific chemical or biochemical reactions or other biological compounds which bind to and accelerate the degradation of CW agents.

Technical Note:

‘Enzymes’ means “biocatalysts” for specific chemical or biochemical reactions.

“Biopolymers” means biological macromolecules as follows:

a.       Enzymes for specific chemical or biochemical reactions;

b.      'Antibodies', 'monoclonal', 'polyclonal' antibodies;

c.       Specially designed or specially processed 'receptors';

Technical Notes:

1.        ‘Anti‑idiotypic antibodies’ means antibodies which bind to the specific antigen binding sites of other antibodies;

2.        ‘Monoclonal antibodies’ means proteins which bind to one antigenic site and are produced by a single clone of cells;

3.        ‘Polyclonal antibodies’ means a mixture of proteins which bind to the specific antigen and are produced by more than one clone of cells;

4.        ‘Receptors’ means biological macromolecular structures capable of binding ligands, the binding of which affects physiological functions.

“Camming” means axial displacement in one revolution of the main spindle measured in a plane perpendicular to the spindle faceplate, at a point next to the circumference of the spindle faceplate (Reference:  ISO 230/1 1986, paragraph 5.63).​

“Carbon fibre preforms” means an ordered arrangement of uncoated or coated fibres intended to constitute a framework of a part before the “matrix” is introduced to form a “composite”.​

“CE” is equivalent to “computing element”.

“CEP” (circle of equal probability) is a measure of accuracy; the radius of the circle centred at the target, at a specific range, in which 50% of the payloads impact.​

“Chemical laser” means a “laser” in which the excited species is produced by the output energy from a chemical reaction.​​

“Chemical mixture” means a solid, liquid or gaseous product made up of two or more components which do not react together under the conditions under which the mixture is stored.

“Circulation‑controlled anti‑torque or circulation controlled direction control systems” are systems that use air blown over aerodynamic surfaces to increase or control the forces generated by the surfaces.

“Civil aircraft” means those “aircraft” listed by designation in published airworthiness certification lists by the civil aviation authorities to fly commercial civil internal and external routes or for legitimate civil, private or business use.

N.B.:        See also “aircraft”.

“Commingled” means filament to filament blending of thermoplastic fibres and reinforcement fibres in order to produce a fibre reinforcement “matrix” mix in total fibre form.​

“Comminution” means a process to reduce a material to particles by crushing or grinding.​

“Common channel signalling” is a signalling method in which a single channel between exchanges conveys, by means of labelled messages, signalling information relating to a multiplicity of circuits or calls and other information such as that used for network management.​

“Communications channel controller” means the physical interface which controls the flow of synchronous or asynchronous digital information.  It is an assembly that can be integrated into computer or telecommunications equipment to provide communications access.​

“Compensation systems” consist of the primary scalar sensor, one or more reference sensors (e.g., vector magnetometers) together with software that permit reduction of rigid body rotation noise of the platform.​

“Composite” means a “matrix” and an additional phase or additional phases consisting of particles, whiskers, fibres or any combination thereof, present for a specific purpose or purposes.​

“Compound rotary table” means a table allowing the workpiece to rotate and tilt about two non‑parallel axes, which can be coordinated simultaneously for “contouring control”.​

“Computing element” (“CE”) means the smallest computational unit that produces an arithmetic or logic result.

“Contouring control” means two or more “numerically controlled” motions operating in accordance with instructions that specify the next required position and the required feed rates to that position.  These feed rates are varied in relation to each other so that a desired contour is generated (ref. ISO/DIS 2806 ‑ 1980).​

“Critical temperature” (sometimes referred to as the transition temperature) of a specific “superconductive” material means the temperature at which the material loses all resistance to the flow of direct electrical current.

"Cryptographic activation" means any technique that activates or enables cryptographic capability of an item, by means of a secure mechanism implemented by the manufacturer of the item, where this mechanism is uniquely bound to any of the following:

    1. ​​​ A single instance of the item; or
    2. One customer,​ for multiple in​stances of the item.​

​​Technical Note:​​

    1. "Cryptographic activation" techniques and mecha​nisms may be implemented as hardware, "software" or "technology"​​.​​
    2. Mechanisms for "cryptographic activation" can, for example, be serial number-based licence keys or authentication instruments such as digitally signed certificates.​.​​

​ ​ ​​

“Cryptography” means the discipline which embodies principles, means and methods for the transformation of data in order to hide its information content, prevent its undetected modification or prevent its unauthorised use. “Cryptography” is limited to the transformation of infor​mation using one or more ‘secret parameters’ (e.g., crypto variables) or associated key management.

Note:       "Cryptography" does not include fixed data compression or coding techniques.

 

Technical Note:

'Secret parameter': a constant or key kept from the knowledge of others or shared only within a group.

“CW laser” means a “laser” that produces a nominally constant output energy for greater than 0.25 seconds.​

“Data‑Based Referenced Navigation” (“DBRN”) Systems means systems which use various sources of previously measured geo‑mapping data integrated to provide accurate navigation information under dynamic conditions.  Data sources include bathymetric maps, stellar maps, gravity maps, magnetic maps or 3‑D digital terrain maps.​

“Deactivated firearm” means a firearm that:

  1. ​​​ Was in a condition in which it could discharge shot, bullets or other projectiles by means of an explosive charge or a compressed gas;
  2. Has been rendered incapable of discharging shot, bullets or other projectiles by means of an explosive charge or a compressed gas;
  3. Cannot be returned to a condition in which it could discharge shot, bullets or other projectiles by means of an explosive charge or a compressed gas; and
  4. Still has the appearance of a firearm, and could reasonably be taken to be a firearm.​​

​​ Note:    ​​​A firearm can be deactivated to the extent that it is incapable of being returned to its original firing condition, while keeping the appearance of a firearm. For the article to be incapable of being returned to its original firing condition, all major parts of the article must be destroyed, permanently incapacitated or permanently immobilised. This includes (but is not limited to) the bolt, barrel, gas system, receiver, trigger, sear or hammer, feed pawls and actuating arm or arms. This can be done by any of the following:​

  1. ​​​​​​​​​​​​ Fusion welding, which is welding material into the barrel, and welding of all the major parts of the firearm, in a way that cannot be reversed;
  2. Sectioning, which is the machining or milling of all the major parts of the firearm in a way that cannot be reversed, exposing the internal mechanism; or
  3. Another method of treating the major parts that ensures that the parts are deactivated to the extent that the firearm is incapable of being returned to its original firing condition.
  4. ​​

“Deformable mirrors” (also known as adaptive optic mirrors) means mirrors having:

a.       A single continuous optical reflecting surface which is dynamically deformed by the application of individual torques or forces to compensate for distortions in the optical waveform incident upon the mirror; or

b.      Multiple optical reflecting elements that can be individually and dynamically repositioned by the application of torques or forces to compensate for distortions in the optical waveform incident upon the mirror.​

“Depleted uranium” means uranium depleted in the isotope 235 below that occurring in nature.​

“Development” is related to all stages prior to serial production, such as: design, design research, design analyses, design concepts, assembly and testing of prototypes, pilot production schemes, design data, process of transforming design data into a product, configuration design, integration design, layouts.

“Diffusion bonding” means a solid state molecular joining of at least two separate metals into a single piece with a joint strength equivalent to that of the weakest material, wherein the principal mechanism is interdiffusion of atoms across the interface.​

“Digital computer” means equipment which can, in the form of one or more discrete variables, perform all of the following:

a.       Accept data;

b.      Store data or instruc​tions in fixed or alterable (writable) storage devices;

c.       Process data by means of a stored sequence of instructions which is modifiable; and

d.      Provide output of data.​​​

​​Technical Note:​​

​​​​Modifications of a stored sequence of instructions include replacement of fixed storage devices, but not a physical change in wiring or interconnections.

“Digital transfer rate” means the total bit rate of the information that is directly transferred on any type of medium.

N.B.:        See also “total digital transfer rate”.​

“Direct‑acting hydraulic pressing” means a deformation process which uses a fluid‑filled flexible bladder in direct contact with the workpiece.​

"Discrete component" means a separately packaged "circuit element" with its own external connections.

“Dynamic adaptive routing” means automatic rerouting of traffic based on sensing and analysis of current actual network conditions.

N.B.:        This does not include cases of routing decisions taken on predefined information.​

“Effective gram” of “special fissile material” means:

a.       For plutonium isotopes and uranium‑233, the isotope weight in grams;

b.      For uranium enriched 1 per cent or greater in the isotope uranium‑235, the element weight in grams multiplied by the square of its enrichment expressed as a decimal weight fraction;

c.       For uranium enriched below 1 per cent in the isotope uranium‑235, the element weight in grams multiplied by 0.0001​

“Electronic assembly” means a number of electronic components (i.e., ‘circuit elements’, ‘discrete components’, integrated circuits, etc.) connected together to perform (a) specific function(s), replaceable as an entity and normally capable of being disassembled.

N.B. 1:     ‘Circuit element’: a single active or passive functional part of an electronic circuit, such as one diode, one transistor, one resistor, one capacitor, etc.

N.B. 2:     ‘Discrete component’: a separately packaged ‘circuit element’ with its own external connections.​

“Electronic assembly” means a number of electronic components (i.e., ‘circuit elements’, ‘discrete components’, integrated circuits, etc.) connected together to perform (a) specific function(s), replaceable as an entity and normally capable of being disassembled.

N.B. 1:     ‘Circuit element’: a single active or passive functional part of an electronic circuit, such as one diode, one transistor, one resistor, one capacitor, etc.

N.B. 2:     ‘Discrete component’: a separately packaged ‘circuit element’ with its own external connections.​

“Electronically steerable phased array antenna” means an antenna which forms a beam by means of phase coupling, (i.e., the beam direction is controlled by the complex excitation coefficients of the radiating elements) and the direction of that beam can be varied (both in transmission and reception) in azimuth or in elevation, or both, by application of an electrical signal.​

“Electronically steerable phased array antenna” (5 6) means an antenna which forms a beam by means of phase coupling, (i.e., the beam direction is controlled by the complex excitation coefficients of the radiating elements) and the direction of that beam can be varied (both in transmission and reception) in azimuth or in elevation, or both, by application of an electrical signal.

“End‑effectors” means grippers, ‘active tooling units’ and any other tooling that is attached to the baseplate on the end of a “robot” manipulator arm.

N.B.:        ‘Active tooling units’ are devices for applying motive power, process energy or sensing to the workpiece.​

“Energetic materials” mean substances or mixtures that react chemically to release energy required for their intended application. “Explosives”, “pyrotechnics” and “propellants” are subclasses of energetic materials.​

“Equivalent Density” means the mass of an optic per unit optical area projected onto the optical surface.​

“Explosives” mean solid, liquid or gaseous substances or mixtures of substances which, in their application as primary, booster, or main charges in warheads, demolition and other applications, are required to detonate.​

“Expression Vectors” mean carriers (e.g., plasmid or virus) used to introduce genetic material into host cells.​

“FADEC” is equivalent to “full authority digital engine control”.

“Fault tolerance” is the capability of a computer system, after any malfunction of any of its hardware or “software” components, to continue to operate without human intervention, at a given level of service that provides: continuity of operation, data integrity and recovery of service within a given time.​

“Fibrous or filamentary materials” include:

a.       Continuous “monofilaments”;

b.      Continuous “yarns” and “rovings”;

c.       “Tapes”, fabrics, random mats and braids;

d.      Chopped fibres, staple fibres and coherent fibre blankets;

e.       Whiskers, either monocrystalline or polycrystalline, of any length;

“Film type integrated circuit” means an array of ‘circuit elements’ and metallic interconnections formed by deposition of a thick or thin film on an insulating “substrate”.

Note:        ‘Circuit element’ is a single active or passive functional part of an electronic circuit, such as one diode, one tra​nsistor, one resistor, one capacitor, etc.​

“First generation image intensifier tubes” means electrostatically focused tubes, employing input and output fibre optic or glass face plates, multi‑alkali photocathodes (S‑20 or S‑25), but not microchannel plate amplifiers.​

“Fixed” means that the coding or compression algorithm cannot accept externally supplied parameters (e.g., cryptographic or key variables) and cannot be modified by the user.​

“Flight control optical sensor array” is a network of distributed optical sensors, using “laser” beams, to provide real‑time flight control data for on‑board processing.​

“Flight path optimisation” is a procedure that minimises deviations from a four‑dimensional (space and time) desired trajectory based on maximising performance or effectiveness for mission tasks.​

"Fly-by-light system"​ is a primary digital flight control system employing feedback to control the aircraft during flight, where the commands to the effectors/actuators are optical signals.


"Fly-by-wire system" is primary digital flight control system employing feedback to control the aircraft during flight, where the commands to the effectors/actuators are electrical signals.​​​

“Focal plane array” means a linear or two‑dimensional planar layer, or combination of planar layers, of individual detector elements, with or without readout electronics, which work in the focal plane.

N.B.:        This definition does not include a stack of single detector elements or any two, three or four element detectors provided time delay and integration is not performed within the element.​

“Fractional bandwidth” means the “instantaneous bandwidth” divided by the centre frequency, expressed as a percentage.​

Frequency hopping” means a form of “spread spectrum” in which the transmission frequency of a single communication channel is made to change by a random or pseudo‑random sequence of discrete steps.​

"Frequency mask trigger" for "signal analysers", means a mechanism where the trigger function is able to select a frequency range to be triggered on as a subset of the acquisition bandwidth while ignoring other signals that may also be present within the same acquisition bandwidth.  A "frequency mask trigger" may contain more than one independent set of limits.

“Frequency switching time” means the time (i.e., delay) taken by a signal when switched from an initial specified output frequency, to arrive at or within ±0.05% of a final specified output frequency.  Items having a specified frequency range of less than ±0.05% around their centre frequency are defined to be incapable of frequency switching.​

“Frequency synthesiser” means any kind of frequency source or signal generator, regardless of the actual technique used, providing a multiplicity of simultaneous or alternative output frequencies, from one or more outputs, controlled by, derived from or disciplined by a lesser number of standard (or master) frequencies.​

"Fuel cell" means an electrochemical device that converts chemical energy directly into Direct Current (DC) electricity by consuming fuel from an external source.​

“Full Authority Digital Engine Control” (“FADEC”) means an electronic control system for gas turbine or combined cycle engines utilising a digital computer to control the variables required to regulate engine thrust or shaft power output throughout the engine operating range from the beginning of fuel metering to fuel shutoff.​

“Fusible” means capable of being cross‑linked or polymerised further (cured) by the use of heat, radiation, catalysts, etc., or that can be melted without pyrolysis (charring).​

“Gas Atomisation” means a process to reduce a molten stream of metal alloy to droplets of 500 µm diameter or less by a high pressure gas stream.​

“Geographically dispersed” is where each location is distant from any other more than 1,500 m in any direction.  Mobile sensors are always considered “geographically dispersed”.​

“Goods​” (Section 4, Customs Act 1901) means movable personal property of any kind and, without limiting the generality of the expression, includes documents, vessels and aircraft.

“Guidance set” means systems that integrate the process of measuring and computing a vehicle’s position and velocity (i.e. navigation) with that of computing and sending commands to the vehicle’s flight control systems to correct the trajectory.​

“Hot isostatic densification” means the process of pressurising a casting at temperatures exceeding 375 K (102°C) in a closed cavity through various media (gas, liquid, solid particles, etc.) to create equal force in all directions to reduce or eliminate internal voids in the casting.​

“Hybrid computer” means equipment which can perform all of the following:

a.       Accept data;

b.      Process data, in both analogue and digital representations; and

c.       Provide output of data.​

“Hybrid integrated circuit” (means any combination of integrated circuit(s), or integrated circuit with ‘circuit elements’ or ‘discrete components’ connected together to perform (a) specific function(s), and having all of the following characteristics:

a.       Containing at least one unencapsulated device;

b.      Connected together using typical IC production methods;

c.       Replaceable as an entity; and

d.      Not normally capable of being disassembled.

N.B. 1:    ‘Circuit element’: a single active or passive functional part of an electronic circuit, such as one diode, one transistor, one resistor, one capacitor, etc.

N.B. 2:     ‘Discrete component’: a separately packaged ‘circuit element’ with its own external connections.​

“III/V compounds” means polycrystalline or binary or complex monocrystalline products consisting of elements of groups IIIA and VA of Mendeleyev’s periodic classification table (e.g., gallium arsenide, gallium‑aluminium arsenide, indium phosphide).​

“III/V compounds” means polycrystalline or binary or complex monocrystalline products consisting of elements of groups IIIA and VA of Mendeleyev’s periodic classification table (e.g., gallium arsenide, gallium‑aluminium arsenide, indium phosphide).​

“Image enhancement” means the processing of externally derived information‑bearing images by algorithms such as time compression, filtering, extraction, selection, correlation, convolution or transformations between domains (e.g., fast Fourier transform or Walsh transform).  This does not include algorithms using only linear or rotational transformation of a single image, such as translation, feature extraction, registration or false coloration.​

“Immunotoxin” is a conjugate of one cell specific monoclonal antibody and a “toxin” or “sub‑unit of toxin”, that selectively affects diseased cells.​

“In the public domain” as it applies herein, means “technology” or “software” which has been made available without restrictions upon its further dissemination (copyright restrictions do not remove “technology” or “software” from being “in the public domain”).

“Information security” is all the means and functions ensuring the accessibility, confidentiality or integrity of information or communications, excluding the means and functions intended to safeguard against malfunctions.  This includes “cryptography”, “cryptographic activation”, ‘cryptanalysis’, protection against compromising emanations and computer security.

Note:    ​‘Cryptanalysis’ is the analysis of a cryptographic system or its inputs and outputs to derive confidential variables or sensitive data, including clear text (ISO 7498-2-1988 (E), paragraph 3.3.18)​.​

“Instantaneous bandwidth” means the bandwidth over which output power remains constant within 3 dB without adjustment of other operating parameters.​

“Instrumented range” means the specified unambiguous display range of a radar.​

“Insulation” is applied to the components of a rocket motor, i.e. the case, nozzle, inlets, case closures, and includes cured or semi‑cured compounded rubber sheet stock containing an insulating or refractory material.  It may also be incorporated as stress relief boots or flaps.​

“Interconnected radar sensors” means two or more radar sensors are interconnected when they mutually exchange data in real time.​

“Interior lining” is suited for the bond interface between the solid propellant and the case or insulating liner.  Usually a liquid polymer based dispersion of refractory or insulating materials, e.g. carbon filled hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) or other polymer with added curing agents sprayed or screeded over a case interior.​

An Intermediary is a person who acts between a number of parties to facilitate the supply of the goods or technology for one or more of the parties. ​

“Intrinsic Magnetic Gradiometer” is a single magnetic field gradient sensing element and associated electronics the output of which is a measure of magnetic field gradient.

N.B.:        See also “magnetic gradiometer”.​

“Intrusion software” "Software" specially designed or modified to avoid detection by 'monitoring tools', or to defeat 'protective countermeasures', of a computer or network-capable device, and performing any of the following:

  1. The extraction of data or information, from a computer or network-capable device, or the modification of system or user data; or
  2. The modification of the standard execution path of a program or process in order to allow the execution of externally provided instructions.

Notes:     1."Intrusion software" does not include any of the following:

a.        Hypervisors, debuggers or Software Reverse Engineering (SRE) tools;

b.        Digital Rights Management (DRM) "software"; or

c.        "Software" designed to be installed by manufacturers, administrators or users, for the purposes of asset tracking or recovery.

2.             Network-capable devices include mobile devices and smart meters.

Technical Notes:

1.   'Monitoring tools': "software" or hardware devices, that monitor system behaviours or processes running on a device.  This includes antivirus (AV) products, end point security products, Personal Security Products (PSP), Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS), Intrusion Prevention Systems (IPS) or firewalls.

2.   'Protective countermeasures': techniques designed to ensure the safe execution of code, such as Data Execution Prevention (DEP), Address Space Layout Randomisation (ASLR) or sandboxing.

“Isolated live cultures” includes live cultures in dormant form and in dried preparations.​

“Isostatic presses” mean equipment capable of pressurising a closed cavity through various media (gas, liquid, solid particles, etc.) to create equal pressure in all directions within the cavity upon a workpiece or material.​

“Laser” is an assembly of components which produce both spatially and temporally coherent light that is amplified by stimulated emission of radiation.

N.B.:        See also:      “Chemical laser”;

“Q‑switched laser”;

“Super High Power Laser”;

“Transfer laser”.​

“Laser duration” means the time over which a “laser” emits “laser” radiation, which for “pulsed lasers” corresponds to the time over which a single pulse or series of consecutive pulses is emitted.​

​"Library" (parametric technical database) is a collection of technical information, reference to which may enhance the performance of relevant systems, equipment or components.​​

“Lighter‑than‑air vehicles” mean balloons and airships that rely on hot air or on lighter‑than‑air gases such as helium or hydrogen for their lift.​

“Linearity” (usually measured in terms of non‑linearity) means the maximum deviation of the actual characteristic (average of upscale and downscale readings), positive or negative, from a straight line so positioned as to equalise and minimise the maximum deviations.​

“Local area network” is a data communication system having all of the following characteristics:

a.       Allows an arbitrary number of independent ‘data devices’ to communicate directly with each other; and

b.      Is confined to a geographical area of moderate size (e.g., office building, plant, campus, warehouse).

N.B.:        ‘Data device’ means equipment capable of transmitting or receiving sequences of digital information.​

“Magnetic Gradiometers” are instruments designed to detect the spatial variation of magnetic fields from sources external to the instrument.  They consist of multiple “magnetometers” and associated electronics the output of which is a measure of magnetic field gradient.

N.B.:        See also “intrinsic magnetic gradiometer”.​

“Magnetometers” are instruments designed to detect magnetic fields from sources external to the instrument.  They consist of a single magnetic field sensing element and associated electronics the output of which is a measure of the magnetic field.​

“Main storage” means the primary storage for data or instructions for rapid access by a central processing unit.  It consists of the internal storage of a “digital computer” and any hierarchical extension thereto, such as cache storage or non‑sequentially accessed extended storage.​

“Materials resistant to corrosion by UF6” may be copper, stainless steel, aluminium, aluminium oxide, aluminium alloys, nickel or alloy containing 60 weight percent or more nickel and UF6‑ resistant fluorinated hydrocarbon polymers, as appropriate for the type of separation process.​

“Matrix” means a substantially continuous phase that fills the space between particles, whiskers or fibres.​

“Measurement uncertainty” is the characteristic parameter which specifies in what range around the output value the correct value of the measurable variable lies with a confidence level of 95 %.  It includes the uncorrected systematic deviations, the uncorrected backlash and the random deviations (Reference: ISO 10360‑2).​

“Mechanical Alloying” means an alloying process resulting from the bonding, fracturing and rebonding of elemental and master alloy powders by mechanical impact.  Non‑metallic particles may be incorporated in the alloy by addition of the appropriate powders.​

“Melt Extraction” means a process to ‘solidify rapidly’ and extract a ribbon‑like alloy product by the insertion of a short segment of a rotating chilled block into a bath of a molten metal alloy.

N.B.:        ‘Solidify rapidly’ means solidification of molten material at cooling rates exceeding 1,000 K/s.​

“Melt Spinning” means a process to ‘solidify rapidly’ a molten metal stream impinging upon a rotating chilled block, forming a flake, ribbon or rod‑like product.

N.B.:        ‘Solidify rapidly’ means solidification of molten material at cooling rates exceeding 1,000 K/s.​

“Microcomputer microcircuit” means a “monolithic integrated circuit” or “multichip integrated circuit” containing an arithmetic logic unit (ALU) capable of executing general purpose instructions from an internal storage, on data contained in the internal storage.

N.B.:        The internal storage may be augmented by an external storage.​

“Microorganisms” means bacteria, viruses, mycoplasms, rickettsiae, chlamydiae or fungi, whether natural, enhanced or modified, either in the form of isolated live cultures or as material including living material which has been deliberately inoculated or contaminated with such cultures.​

“Microprocessor microcircuit” means a “monolithic integrated circuit” or “multichip integrated circuit” containing an arithmetic logic unit (ALU) capable of executing a series of general purpose instructions from an external storage.

N.B. 1:     The “microprocessor microcircuit” normally does not contain integral user‑accessible storage, although storage present on‑the‑chip may be used in performing its logic function.

N.B. 2:     This includes chip sets which are designed to operate together to provide the function of a “microprocessor microcircuit”.​

"Microprogramme" means a sequence of elementary instructions maintained in a special storage, the execution of which is initiated by the introduction of its reference instruction register.

Military end-use: goods or DSGL technology is or may be for a military end use if the goods or DSGL technology is or may be for use in relation to operations, exercises or other activities conducted by an armed force or an armed group, whether or not the armed force or armed group forms part of the armed forces of the government of a foreign country.
(Section 15, Defence Trade Controls Act 2012; Section 112BA, Customs Act 1901)

“Missiles” means complete rocket systems and unmanned aerial vehicle systems, capable of delivering at least 500 kg payload to a range of at least 300 km.​

“Missiles” means complete rocket systems and unmanned aerial vehicle systems, capable of delivering at least 500 kg payload to a range of at least 300 km.​

“Monofilament” or filament is the smallest increment of fibre, usually several micrometres in diameter.​

“Monolithic integrated circuit” means a combination of passive or active ‘circuit elements’ or both which:

a.       Are formed by means of diffusion processes, implantation processes or deposition processes in or on a single semiconducting piece of material, a so‑called ‘chip’;

b.      Can be considered as indivisibly associated; and

c.       Perform the function(s) of a circuit.

N.B.:        ‘Circuit element’ is a single active or passive functional part of an electronic circuit, such as one diode, one transistor, one resistor, one capacitor, etc.​

“Monospectral imaging sensors” are capable of acquisition of imaging data from one discrete spectral band.​​

“Multichip integrated circuit” means two or more “monolithic integrated circuits” bonded to a common “substrate”.​

“Multispectral imaging sensors” are capable of simultaneous or serial acquisition of imaging data from two or more discrete spectral bands.  Sensors having more than twenty discrete spectral bands are sometimes referred to as hyperspectral imaging sensors.​

“Natural uranium” means uranium containing the mixtures of isotopes occurring in nature.​

“Network access controller” means a physical interface to a distributed switching network.  It uses a common medium which operates throughout at the same “digital transfer rate” using arbitration (e.g., token or carrier sense) for transmission. Independently from any other, it selects data packets or data groups (e.g., IEEE 802) addressed to it. It is an assembly that can be integrated into computer or telecommunications equipment to provide communications access.​

“Neural computer” means a computational device designed or modified to mimic the behaviour of a neuron or a collection of neurons, i.e., a computational device which is distinguished by its hardware capability to modulate the weights and numbers of the interconnections of a multiplicity of computational components based on previous data.​

“Nuclear reactor” means the items within or attached directly to the reactor vessel, the equipment which controls the level of power in the core, and the components which normally contain, come into direct contact with or control the primary coolant of the reactor core.​

“Numerical control” means the automatic control of a process performed by a device that makes use of numeric data usually introduced as the operation is in progress (ref. ISO 2382).

“Numerical control” means the automatic control of a process performed by a device that makes use of numeric data usually introduced as the operation is in progress (ref. ISO 2382).

"Operations, Administration or Maintenance" ("OAM") means performing one or more of the following tasks:

  1. ​​​Establishing or managing any of the following:
    1. Accounts or privileges of users or administrators;
    2. Settings of an item; or
    3. Authentication data in support of the tasks described in paragraphs a.1. or a.2.;
  2. ​​​Monitoring or managing the operating condition or performance of an item; or
  3. ​​​​​​​Managing logs or audit data in support of any of the tasks described in ​​paragraphs a. or b.

Note:    "OAM" does not include any of the following tasks or their associated key management functions:​

    1. ​​​ Provisioning or upgrading any cryptographic functionality that is not directly related to establishing or managing authentication data in support of the tasks described in paragraphs a.1. or a.2. above; or
    2. ​ Performing any cryptographic functionality on the forwarding or data plane of an item.​
    3. ​​
​​

“Object code” means an equipment executable form of a convenient expression of one or more processes (“source code” (source language)) which has been converted by programming system.​

"Operations, Administration or Maintenance" ("OAM") means performing one or more of the following tasks:

  1. ​​​Establishing or managing any of the following:
    1. Accounts or privileges of users or administrators;
    2. Settings of an item; or
    3. Authentication data in support of the tasks described in paragraphs a.1. or a.2.;
  2. ​​​Monitoring or managing the operating condition or performance of an item; or
  3. ​​​​​​​Managing logs or audit data in support of any of the tasks described in ​​paragraphs a. or b.

Note:    "OAM" does not include any of the following tasks or their associated key management functions:​

    1. ​​​ Provisioning or upgrading any cryptographic functionality that is not directly related to establishing or managing authentication data in support of the tasks described in paragraphs a.1. or a.2. above; or
    2. ​ Performing any cryptographic functionality on the forwarding or data plane of an item.​
    3. ​​
​​

“Optical amplification” in optical communications, means an amplification technique that introduces a gain of optical signals that have been generated by a separate optical source, without conversion to electrical signals, i.e., using semiconductor optical amplifiers, optical fibre luminescent amplifiers.​

“Optical computer” means a computer designed or modified to use light to represent data and whose computational logic elements are based on directly coupled optical devices.​

“Optical integrated circuit” means a “monolithic integrated circuit” or a “hybrid integrated circuit”, containing one or more parts designed to function as a photosensor or photoemitter or to perform (an) optical or (an) electro‑optical function(s).​

“Optical switching” means the routing of or switching of signals in optical form without conversion to electrical signals.​

“Overall current density” means the total number of ampere‑turns in the coil (i.e., the sum of the number of turns multiplied by the maximum current carried by each turn) divided by the total cross‑section of the coil (comprising the superconducting filaments, the metallic matrix in which the superconducting filaments are embedded, the encapsulating material, any cooling channels, etc.).​

“Peak power” means the highest level of power attained in the “laser duration”.

“Personal area network” means a data communication system having all of the following characteristics:

a.       Allows an arbitrary number of independent or interconnected ‘data devices’ to communicate directly with each other; and

b.      Is confined to the communication between devices within the immediate vicinity of an individual person or device controller (e.g., single room, office, or automobile, and their nearby surrounding spaces).

Technical Note:

‘Data device’ means equipment capable of transmitting or receiving sequences of digital information.​

“Personalised smart card” means a smart card containing a microcircuit which has been programmed for a specific application and cannot be reprogrammed for any other application by the user.​

"Plasma atomisation"​ is a process to reduce a molten stream or solid metal to droplets of 500 µm diameter or less, using plasma torches in an inert gas environment.​

Police means ​a member or special member of the Australian Federal Police or a member of the police force of a State or Territory

“Power management” means changing the transmitted power of the altimeter signal so that received power at the “aircraft” altitude is always at the minimum necessary to determine the altitude.​

“Precursors” means specialty chemicals used in the manufacture of military explosives.​

“Pressure transducers” are devices that convert pressure measurements into an electrical signal.​

“Previously separated” means the application of any process intended to increase the concentration of the controlled isotope.​

“Primary flight control” means an “aircraft” stability or manoeuvering control using force/moment generators, i.e., aerodynamic control surfaces or propulsive thrust vectoring.​

“Principal element” as it applies in Category 4, is a “principal element” when its replacement value is more than 35% of the total value of the system of which it is an element.  Element value is the price paid for the element by the manufacturer of the system, or by the system integrator.  Total value is the normal international selling price to unrelated parties at the point of manufacture or consolidation of shipment.​

“Production” means all production phases, such as: construction, production engineering, manufacture, integration, assembly (mounting), inspection, testing, quality assurance.​

“Production equipment” means tooling, templates, jigs, mandrels, moulds, dies, fixtures, alignment mechanisms, test equipment, other machinery and components therefor, limited to those specially designed or modified for “development” or for one or more phases of “production”.​

“Production facilities” means equipment and specially designed software therefor integrated into installations for “development” or for one or more phases of “production”.​

“Program(s)” means a sequence of instructions to carry out a process in, or convertible into, a form executable by an electronic computer.​

“Program(s)” means a sequence of instructions to carry out a process in, or convertible into, a form executable by an electronic computer.​

“Propellants” Substances or mixtures that react chemically to produce large volumes of hot gases at controlled rates to perform mechanical work.​

In the public domain means technology or software which has been made available without restrictions upon its further dissemination (copyright restrictions do not remove technology or software from being in the public domain). You can place software or technology in the public domain by publishing DSGL technology on a website, in a journal or newspaper.

“Pulse compression” means the coding and processing of a radar signal pulse of long time duration to one of short time duration, while maintaining the benefits of high pulse energy.​

“Pulse duration” is the duration of a “laser” pulse measured at Full Width Half Intensity (FWHI) levels.​

“Pulsed laser” means a “laser” having a “pulse duration” that is less than or equal to 0.25 seconds.​

“Pyrotechnic(s)” means mixtures of solid or liquid fuels and oxidisers which, when ignited, undergo an energetic chemical reaction at a controlled rate intended to produce specific time delays, or quantities of heat, noise, smoke, visible light or infrared radiation.  Pyrophorics are a subclass of pyrotechnics, which contain no oxidisers but ignite spontaneously on contact with air.​

“Q‑switched laser” means a “laser” in which the energy is stored in the population inversion or in the optical resonator and subsequently emitted in a pulse.​

“Quantum cryptography” means a family of techniques for the establishment of a shared key for “cryptography” by measuring the quantum‑mechanical properties of a physical system (including those physical properties explicitly governed by quantum optics, quantum field theory, or quantum electrodynamics).​

“Radar frequency agility” means any technique which changes, in a pseudo‑random sequence, the carrier frequency of a pulsed radar transmitter between pulses or between groups of pulses by an amount equal to or larger than the pulse bandwidth.​

“Radar spread spectrum” means any modulation technique for spreading energy originating from a signal with a relatively narrow frequency band, over a much wider band of frequencies, by using random or pseudo‑random coding.​

"Radiant sensitivity" Radiant sensitivity (mA/W) = 0.807 x (wavelength in nm) x Quantum Efficiency (QE)

Technical Note:

QE is usually expressed as a percentage; however, for the purposes of this formula QE is expressed as a decimal number less than one, e.g., 78% is 0.78.​

“Real‑time bandwidth” for “signal analysers” is the widest frequency range for which the analyser can continuously transform time-domain data entirely into frequency-domain results, using a Fourier or other discrete time transform that processes every incoming time point without gaps or windowing effects that causes a reduction of measured amplitude of more than 3 dB below the actual signal amplitude, while outputting or displaying the transformed data.

“Real time processing” means the processing of data by a computer system providing a required level of service, as a function of available resources, within a guaranteed response time, regardless of the load of the system, when stimulated by an external event.​

“Real‑time bandwidth” for “signal analysers” is the widest frequency range for which the analyser can continuously transform time-domain data entirely into frequency-domain results, using a Fourier or other discrete time transform that processes every incoming time point without gaps or windowing effects that causes a reduction of measured amplitude of more than 3 dB below the actual signal amplitude, while outputting or displaying the transformed data.

“Repeatability” means the closeness of agreement among repeated measurements of the same variable under the same operating conditions when changes in conditions or non‑operating periods occur between measurements. (Reference: IEEE STD 528‑2001 (one sigma standard deviation)).​

“Required” as applied to “technology”, refers to only that portion of “technology” which is peculiarly responsible for achieving or extending the controlled performance levels, characteristics or functions.  Such “required” “technology” may be shared by different goods.

“Resolution” means the least increment of a measuring device; on digital instruments, the least significant bit (ref. ANSI B‑89.1.12).​

“Riot control agents” mean substances which, under the expected conditions of use for riot control purposes, rapidly produce in humans sensory irritation or disabling physical effects which disappear within a short time following termination of exposure.

Technical Note:

Tear gases are a subset of “riot control agents”. ​

“Robot” means a manipulation mechanism, which may be of the continuous path or of the point‑to‑point variety, may use sensors, and has all the following characteristics:

a.       Is multifunctional;

b.      Is capable of positioning or orienting material, parts, tools or special devices through variable movements in three dimensional space;

c.       Incorporates three or more closed or open loop servo‑devices which may include stepping motors; and

d.      Has “user‑accessible programmability” by means of teach/playback method or by means of an electronic computer which may be a programmable logic controller, i.e., without mechanical intervention.

N.B.:        The above definition does not include the following devices:

1.        Manipulation mechanisms which are only manually / teleoperator controllable;

2.        Fixed sequence manipulation mechanisms which are automated moving devices, operating according to mechanically fixed programmed motions.  The program is mechanically limited by fixed stops, such as pins or cams. The sequence of motions and the selection of paths or angles are not variable or changeable by mechanical, electronic or electrical means;

3.        Mechanically controlled variable sequence manipulation mechanisms which are automated moving devices, operating according to mechanically fixed programmed motions.  The program is mechanically limited by fixed, but adjustable stops, such as pins or cams.  The sequence of motions and the selection of paths or angles are variable within the fixed program pattern. Variations or modifications of the program pattern (e.g., changes of pins or exchanges of cams) in one or more motion axes are accomplished only through mechanical operations;

4.        Non‑servo‑controlled variable sequence manipulation mechanisms which are automated moving devices, operating according to mechanically fixed programmed motions.  The program is variable but the sequence proceeds only by the binary signal from mechanically fixed electrical binary devices or adjustable stops;

5.        Stacker cranes defined as Cartesian coordinate manipulator systems manufactured as an integral part of a vertical array of storage bins and designed to access the contents of those bins for storage or retrieval.​

“Rotary atomisation” means a process to reduce a stream or pool of molten metal to droplets to a diameter of 500 µm or less by centrifugal force.​

“Roving” is a bundle (typically 12–120) of approximately parallel ‘strands’.

N.B.:        ‘Strand’ is a bundle of “monofilaments” (typically over 200) arranged approximately parallel.​

“Run‑out” (out‑of‑true running) means radial displacement in one revolution of the main spindle measured in a plane perpendicular to the spindle axis at a point on the external or internal revolving surface to be tested (Reference: ISO 230/1‑1986, paragraph 5.61).​

“Scale factor” (gyro or accelerometer) means the ratio of change in output to a change in the input intended to be measured. Scale factor is generally evaluated as the slope of the straight line that can be fitted by the method of least squares to input‑output data obtained by varying the input cyclically over the input range.​

“Settling time” means the time required for the output to come within one‑half bit of the final value when switching between any two levels of the converter.​

“SHPL” is equivalent to “super high power laser”.​

“Signal analysers” mean apparatus capable of measuring and displaying basic properties of the single‑frequency components of multi‑frequency signals.​

“Signal processing” means the processing of externally derived information‑bearing signals by algorithms such as time compression, filtering, extraction, selection, correlation, convolution or transformations between domains (e.g., fast Fourier transform or Walsh transform).​

“Software” means a collection of one or more “programs” or ‘microprograms’ fixed in any tangible medium of expression.

N.B.:        ‘Microprogram’ means a sequence of elementary instructions, maintained in a special storage, the execution of which is initiated by the introduction of its reference instruction into an instruction register.​

“Source code” (or source language) is a convenient expression of one or more processes which may be turned by a programming system into equipment executable form (“object code” (or object language)).​

“Space qualified” refers to products designed, manufactured, or qualified through successful testing, for operation at altitudes greater than 100 km above the surface of the Earth.

Note:       A determination that a specific item is "space- qualified" by virtue of testing does not mean that other items in the same production run or model series are "space-qualified” if not individually tested.​

“Spacecraft” means active and passive satellites and space probes.​

"Spacecraft bus"​ is equipment that provides the support infrastructure of the "spacecraft" and location for the "spacecraft payload".​

"Spacecraft payload"​ is equipment, attached to the "spacecraft bus", designed to perform a mission in space (e.g., communications, observation, science)​.​​

“Space qualified” refers to products designed, manufactured, or qualified through successful testing, for operation at altitudes greater than 100 km above the surface of the Earth.

Note:       A determination that a specific item is "space- qualified" by virtue of testing does not mean that other items in the same production run or model series are "space-qualified” if not individually tested.​

“Special fissile material” means plutonium‑239, uranium‑233, “uranium enriched in the isotopes 235 or 233”, and any material containing the foregoing.​

“Specific modulus” is Young’s modulus in pascals, equivalent to N/m2 divided by specific weight in N/m3, measured at a temperature of (296 ± 2) K ((23 ± 2)oC) and a relative humidity of (50 ± 5)%.​

“Specific tensile strength” is ultimate tensile strength in pascals, equivalent to N/m2 divided by specific weight in N/m3, measured at a temperature of (296 ± 2) K ((23 ± 2)oC) and a relative humidity of (50 ± 5)%.​

“Spinning mass gyros” "Spinning mass gyros" are gyros which use a continually rotating mass to sense angular motion.​

“Splat Quenching” means a process to ‘solidify rapidly’ a molten metal stream impinging upon a chilled block, forming a flake‑like product.

N.B.:        ‘Solidify rapidly’ means solidification of molten material at cooling rates exceeding 1,000 K/s.​

“Spread spectrum” means the technique whereby energy in a relatively narrow‑band communication channel is spread over a much wider energy spectrum.​

“Spread spectrum” radar — see “Radar spread spectrum”.​

“Stability” means the standard deviation (1 sigma) of the variation of a particular parameter from its calibrated value measured under stable temperature conditions. This can be expressed as a function of time.​

“States not Party to the Chemical Weapon Convention” are those states for which the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons has not​ entered into force.  (See www.opcw.org)​

“States (not) Party to the Chemical Weapon Convention” are those states for which the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons has (not) entered into force.  (See www.opcw.org)​

“States Party to the Chemical Weapon Convention” are those states for which the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons has entered into force.  (See www.opcw.org)​​

“Substrate” means a sheet of base material with or without an interconnection pattern and on which or within which ‘discrete components’ or integrated circuits or both can be located.

N.B. 1:     ‘Discrete component’: a separately packaged ‘circuit element’ with its own external connections.

N.B. 2:     ‘Circuit element’: a single active or passive functional part of an electronic circuit, such as one diode, one transistor, one resistor, one capacitor, etc.​

“Substrate blanks” means monolithic compounds with dimensions suitable for the production of optical elements such as mirrors or optical windows.​

“Substrate blanks” means monolithic compounds with dimensions suitable for the production of optical elements such as mirrors or optical windows.​

“Sub‑unit of toxin” is a structurally and functionally discrete component of a whole “toxin”.​

“Super High Power Laser” (“SHPL”) means a “laser” capable of delivering (the total or any portion of) the output energy exceeding 1 kJ within 50 ms or having an average or CW power exceeding 20 kW.​

“Superalloys” mean nickel‑, cobalt‑ or iron‑base alloys having strengths superior to any alloys in the AISI 300 series at temperatures over 922 K (649oC) under severe environmental and operating conditions.​

“Superconductive” means materials, i.e., metals, alloys or compounds, which can lose all electrical resistance, i.e., which can attain infinite electrical conductivity and carry very large electrical currents without Joule heating.

N.B.:        The “superconductive” state of a material is individually characterised by a “critical temperature”, a critical magnetic field, which is a function of temperature, and a critical current density which is, however, a function of both magnetic field and temperature.​

“Super High Power Laser” (“SHPL”) means a “laser” capable of delivering (the total or any portion of) the output energy exceeding 1 kJ within 50 ms or having an average or CW power exceeding 20 kW.​

“Superplastic forming” means a deformation process using heat for metals that are normally characterised by low values of elongation (less than 20%) at the breaking point as determined at room temperature by conventional tensile strength testing, in order to achieve elongations during processing which are at least 2 times those values.​

“Symmetric algorithm” means a cryptographic algorithm using an identical key for both encryption and decryption.

N.B.:        A common use of “symmetric algorithms” is confidentiality of data.​

“System tracks” means processed, correlated (fusion of radar target data to flight plan position) and updated aircraft flight position report available to the Air Traffic Control centre controllers.​

“Systolic array computer” means a computer where the flow and modification of the data is dynamically controllable at the logic gate level by the user.​

“Tape” is a material constructed of interlaced or unidirectional “monofilaments”, ‘strands’, “rovings”, “tows”, or “yarns”, etc., usually preimpregnated with resin.

N.B.:        ‘Strand’ is a bundle of “monofilaments” (typically over 200) arranged approximately parallel.​

“Technology” means specific information necessary for the “development”, “production” or “use” of a product. This information takes the form of ‘technical data’ or ‘technical assistance’.  Controlled “technology” for the Dual‑Use List is defined in the General Technology Note and in the Dual‑Use List.  Controlled “technology” for the Munitions List is specified in ML22.

N.B. 1:     ‘Technical assistance’ may take forms such as instruction, skills, training, working knowledge and consulting services and may involve the transfer of ‘technical data’.

N.B. 2:     ‘Technical data’ may take forms such as blueprints, plans, diagrams, models, formulae, tables, engineering designs and specifications, manuals and instructions written or recorded on other media or devices such as disk, tape, read‑only memories.​

"Three dimensional integrated circuit" A collection of semiconductor die, integrated together, and having vias passing completely through at least one die to establish interconnections between die.​

“Tilting spindle” means a tool‑holding spindle which alters, during the machining process, the angular position of its centre line with respect to any other axis.​

“Time constant” is the time taken from the application of a light stimulus for the current increment to reach a value of 1‑1/e times the final value (i.e., 63% of the final value).​

"Tip shroud" means a stationary ring component (solid or segmented) attached to the inner surface of the engine turbine casing or a feature at the outer tip of the turbine blade, which primarily provides a gas seal between the stationary and rotating components.​

“Total control of flight” means an automated control of “aircraft” state variables and flight path to meet mission objectives responding to real time changes in data regarding objectives, hazards or other “aircraft”.​

“Total digital transfer rate” means the number of bits, including line coding, overhead and so forth per unit time passing between corresponding equipment in a digital transmission system.

N.B.:        See also “digital transfer rate”.​

“Tow” is a bundle of “monofilaments”, usually approximately parallel.​

“Toxins” means toxins in the form of deliberately isolated preparations or mixtures, no matter how produced, other than toxins present as contaminants of other materials such as pathological specimens, crops, foodstuffs or seed stocks of “microorganisms”.​

“Transfer laser” means a “laser” in which the lasing species is excited through the transfer of energy by collision of a non‑lasing atom or molecule with a lasing atom or molecule species.​

“Tunable” means the ability of a “laser” to produce a continuous output at all wavelengths over a range of several “laser” transitions.  A line selectable “laser” produces discrete wavelengths within one “laser” transition and is not considered “tunable”.​

"Unidirectional positioning repeatability"​ means the smaller of values R↑ and R↓ (forward and backward), as defined by 3.21 of ISO 230-2:2014 or national equivalents, of an individual machine tool axis.​

“Unmanned aerial vehicle” (UAV) means any “aircraft” capable of initiating flight and sustaining controlled flight and navigation without any human presence on board.​

“Uranium enriched in the isotopes 235 or 233” means uranium containing the isotopes 235 or 233, or both, in an amount such that the abundance ratio of the sum of these isotopes to the isotope 238 is more than the ratio of the isotope 235 to the isotope 238 occurring in nature (isotopic ratio 0.71 per cent).​

“Use” means operation, installation (including on‑site installation), maintenance (checking), repair, overhaul and refurbishing.​

“User‑accessible programmability” means the facility allowing a user to insert, modify or replace “programs” by means other than:

a.       A physical change in wiring or interconnections; or

b.      The setting of function controls including entry of parameters.​

“User‑accessible programmability” means the facility allowing a user to insert, modify or replace “programs” by means other than:

a.       A physical change in wiring or interconnections; or

b.      The setting of function controls including entry of parameters.​

“Vaccine” is a medicinal product in a pharmaceutical formulation licensed by, or having marketing or clinical trial authorisation from, the regulatory authorities of either the country of manufacture or of use, which is intended to stimulate a protective immunological response in humans or animals in order to prevent disease in those to whom or to which it is administered.​

“Vacuum Atomisation” means a process to reduce a molten stream of metal to droplets of a diameter of 500 micrometre or less by the rapid evolution of a dissolved gas upon exposure to a vacuum.​

“Variable geometry airfoils” means the use of trailing edge flaps or tabs, or leading edge slats or pivoted nose droop, the position of which can be controlled in flight.​

Weapons of Mass Destruction program means a plan or program for the development, production, acquisition or stockpiling of nuclear, biological or chemical weapons or missiles capable of delivering such weapons.​

“Yarn” is a bundle of twisted ‘strands’.

N.B.:        ‘Strand’ is a bundle of “monofilaments” (typically over 200) arranged approximately parallel.​